GROWTH IS THE GOAL: USING BHP SCORE TO REVISE STUDENT WRITING

Steve Hamilton, BHP Teacher
Washington, USA

We ended the first semester of Capital High School’s Big History class with Investigation 6. On the final day of the semester, students completed their Investigations and submitted them to BHP Score. I also scored the essay myself. Having sent in Investigation 2, the students knew the type of detailed feedback they would be getting from BHP Score. We were excitedly anticipating their scores. I wanted the students to experience growth and improvement.

bhp-score-reports

Sample BHP Score class and student reports

When the scores for Investigation 6 arrived a few days later, I revealed each student’s overall score and the class average. The scores had improved from Investigation 2, and the overall average went up. We had progress and improvement. It was small, maybe, but we were going in the right direction.

I saw an opportunity to use the reports as an instructional tool. I printed students a copy of their individual reports from both Investigations, and created an additional reflection sheet for them to compare and reflect on the feedback they’d received. As I went around the room, I asked each student what they could improve on for Investigation 9, the next essay they’d submit for grading by BHP Score. With the use of the BHP Score report and feedback, in tandem with the BHP Writing Rubric, the students could be very specific:

“I did not cite all of my sources. Also, I can word my essay more formally in essay #9.”
– Milo

“I can use more text evidence and use a better argument. Maybe have the text I want to use written down before I go to do the essay.”
– Tiffany

BHP Score breaks the writing process down for students. Reflecting on the process and being very specific about what they need to focus on helps all students to improve and grow over the course of the year, which is the goal. I had kids who improved greatly and also those who improved just a little bit. I also had a student who did not improve in any areas, but instead slid backwards. Each of these results brings a great learning opportunity for students. They don’t need to be perfect or even to get an A, but they do need to show growth and learning.

Note: this is the second of a series of blog posts I’m writing about my classroom’s experience with BHP Score this year. Read the first one, BHP Score: A Tool for Self-Improvement.

About the author: Steve teachers two sections of Big History as a full-year tenth-grade world history course at Capital High School, an International Baccalaureate school in Olympia, Washington. Steve has been teaching BHP since 2015, and is particularly appreciative of BHP’s emphasis on skills like argumentative writing and claim testing, which he thinks is especially relevant today.

BHP AND THE FACT/FICTION CONTINUUM

Scott Henstrand, BHP Teacher
New York, USA

In my first year teaching Big History (five or six years ago, now—I’ve lost count), I discovered a lens of focus that made the course infinitely engaging to teach—and learn. As with most teachers new to Big History, my early planning for the first five thresholds got bogged down in the minutiae—my students and I lost sight of the unfolding story. I realized that, of the three core BHP concepts (thresholds, collective learning, and origin stories), it was the telling of narratives and origin stories, and the differences between narrative and story, that compelled me to restructure the course from how I had first outlined it.

veil-2000

Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Credit: T.A. Rector/University of Alaska Anchorage, H. Schweiker/WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF.

In restructuring my approach, my primary concern was to keep the modern scientific narrative in perspective as an ongoing attempt to explain our Universe. I continually gave students origin stories from across time and the globe related to the threshold at hand—this kept us grounded in what is a universal human desire to discover our origins. (By the way, the more I teach BHP, the more I realize it’s okay for this narrative to remain in a space of wonder.) And since the modern scientific origin narrative is not fixed, matters of closely reading and critically analyzing what the story proposes—and the choices made by the tellers of the story—become of utmost importance. The course’s emphasis on doing this literacy work with students is one of the most important reasons we should be teaching Big History.

To this end, my school team focuses on defining and distinguishing between fiction and nonfiction. We’ve worked with our ELA staff (Big History invites authentic interdepartmental collaboration) to base our definitions of fiction and nonfiction on the work of Kylene Beers. This is what we decided: Fiction is something made up by a person that does not need any supporting evidence. Sometimes fiction takes a historical event and adds details to the story that are not really known. This is historical fiction. The key, though, is what we use as a definition for nonfiction: text where the author intends to tell us about the real world, a real experience, a real person, idea, or belief. This allows for the nonfiction to change form – you then need a critical eye to evaluate the text and suspend your own belief system to fully read it. Beers has commented on the active participation required of readers of nonfiction:

Definitions of nonfiction that tell students that nonfiction is ‘true’ or ‘real’ or ‘not false’ suggest to students that they do not have a role in reading nonfiction. We disagree with that. We think readers have a critical role in the reading of nonfiction.

-Kylene Beers, Education Week

Beers steers us away from an apodictic view of nonfiction, one where to read is to accept a given truth, and toward an active stance of seeking truth. To create active readers is the goal. This is where the primacy of the core concept origin stories meets the essential skill of claim testing using the BHP claim testers intuition, authority, logic, and evidence.

From this premise, all texts fall on a continuum of fiction/nonfiction. (That thing that’s 100 percent not fiction? It doesn’t exist.) Any fabricated story is a fiction. What becomes interesting is deciding where to place the great fictions on the continuum. I would place Moby Dick and One Hundred Years of Solitude, as examples, on the continuum as not pure fiction, since these are fabrications that speak to deep human truths. On the other end of the continuum, close to the purity of nonfiction and absolute truth, lie many of the scientific/historical narratives we have—such as the modern scientific origin narrative of Big History. Claim testing gives us a way to determine where a text might fall on the continuum.

While reading a text in class, one student of mine proposed a solution for determining a text’s “truth value.” In an inspired bit of thinking, the student proposed that the more claim testers a text used, the closer to nonfiction the text was. To give further nuance, the student proposed that the greater the variety of claim testers used (not just logic or evidence, but also intuition, for example), the more it moved a text toward nonfiction. With a premise that the modern scientific narrative is always incomplete, students had a way to argue for the truth value of any text.

This use of claim testers as a truth-value indicator is also valuable to students for judging their own writing. They now understand that for their documents to be considered as closer to nonfiction, they need to understand better why they make a claim and use a variety (and more than a couple) of claim testers.

Of course, this is a work in progress. At least students now have common ground for deepening their understanding of fiction/nonfiction and claim testers. I also do not leave myself out of that endeavor.

About the author: Scott Henstrand has been teaching Big History at Brooklyn Collaborative Studies, a public school in New York, since 2011. His school teaches offers the course as a two-year deployment that replaces global studies. In the first year, Unit 1 through Unit 5 are covered, and in the second year, Unit 6 through Unit 10. Scott loves teaching the course because of the fundamental philosophical implications the material addresses.

Big History for All Learners

Todd Nussen, Big History Teacher
New York, USA

It seems like there’s more material, more time periods to cover, more terms to remember, and more complex ideas to understand. If the Big History curriculum is overwhelming, why would we bombard students with it?

resources-nussen-blog

A selection of BHP resources.

This is a valid question. Those of us who have been teaching Big History to students with diverse learning needs and abilities know that this dynamic curriculum can allow all learners to master advanced writing strategies, evaluate and utilize new information, and discover the connections between science and the humanities. BHP course resources and activities are adaptable and shareable, and help teachers meet the needs and abilities of students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs). I’ll outline a few of my (and my students’!) favorite features.

Each Big History article is available in at least four Lexile levels. Special-education teachers, speech-language pathologists, and hearing specialists at my school love this feature. So do students—they can challenge themselves by reading the same article at higher levels, or lower the Lexile level, if needed. And they can do this with just a few clicks (or taps) from their student view of the course. I like that students can check out the readings in higher levels—it gives them a goal to shoot for, while providing some of the steps for getting there. For students who are visually impaired, each unit comes with a text reader file, a Word document that contains all of the unit’s articles (in all Lexile levels). This text reader document is compatible with text-to-speech tools.

IEP accommodations often allow students to request a copy of class notes. The downloadable unit slides help with this. The unit slides outline the key ideas and terms for each activity, article, and video in the unit (in both PDF and PowerPoint format). If a student is shaky on a concept, they can refer back to these (or support staff can help them to do so). The course website also allows students to download the articles, vocabulary lists, and infographics used in class. In addition, each unit includes “Other Materials” and “Web Links” Sections. Even if you don’t wind up using material from these sections in class, special-education teachers and support staff will find that they provide additional resources that help reinforce ideas and vocabulary.

BHP course videos also have useful scaffolding features built in. The ellipses icon on each video leads to the transcript, notebook, and Text Genome tools. Students can download transcripts from their course view, or teachers can print them out ahead of time. You can get creative here—I’ve instructed students to use transcripts before, during, and after viewing videos. It’s a good way to encourage close and active reading of video content. It also conveniently includes time stamps to help students follow along, and highlights key vocabulary terms. The notebook tool offers the same transcript, but includes an area students can use to take notes and answer guiding questions. Text Genome reports help students make sense of critical words by pointing to the cluster, semantic network, and word family of each. There are vocabulary activities in each unit that are a nice complement to these.

Yes, the BHP website can look intimidating at first. But there are many convenient tools and features built in that help scaffold the content for students. While these are especially helpful for meeting the IEP requirements of students with special needs and abilities, I find all my learners benefit from them.

About the author: Todd Nussen has been teaching world history for more than 10 years at Oceanside High School in New York. His schedule includes two ninth-grade BHP classes. Each 40-minute class has about 60 students.